In 1802, the Creek Indians and U.S. commissioners signed the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, which ceded Creek lands in two different areas to Georgia . The northern cession involved land west of the Oconee River , which the legislature divided into two new counties -- Baldwin and Wilkinson -- on May 11, 1803 . Georgia 's 29th county was named for Abraham Baldwin, one of Georgia 's two signers of the U.S. Constitution and founder of the University of Georgia . In 1805, the Creeks signed the Treaty of Washington, which extended Georgia westward to the Ocmulgee River. Milledgeville, named after John Milledge, was the state capital of Georgia from 1807 to 1868 & incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1806 Baldwin County had a population of 6,300, making it comparable in size at that time to Augusta. Today Baldwin County is home to 44,000 people making up 9,800 families. About half live in the City of Milledgeville which is now home to Georgia College.