The Kansas 1st Infantry Regiment was raised under the call of President Lincoln in May, 1861, for three years' volunteers. The men were recruited between May 20 and June 3, principally from the counties
of Leavenworth, Douglas and Atchison, rendezvoused at Camp
Lincoln, near Fort Leavenworth, and were there mustered
into the U. S. service for three years June 3, 1861. The regiment
left the state for Kansas City and Springfield, Mo., June 13, joined
the forces under Gen. Lyon, and participated in a skirmish with
the enemy under Gen. Price at Dug springs. Mo., in which a few
men of the ist were wounded. It took part in its first important
battle at Wilson's creek, where it established a reputation for discipline and bravery excelled by none. It went into this bloody
engagement with 644 men and officers, of whom TJ were killed and
255 wounded, or 51 per cent, of those engaged. Said the veteran
Maj. Sturgis to Gen. Lyon, during the progress of the 6 hours' battle: "These Kansas boys are doing the best fighting that I have
ever witnessed." Col. Deitzler, Maj. Halderman, and several other
officers of the regiment were specially mentioned in the official report of the battle for gallant and meritorious conduct. The ist
then retreated from Springfield to Rolla and thence to St. Louis
with the rest of the Union forces, and was occupied in railroad
guard duty along the lines of the Hannibal and St. Joseph, and
the Missouri Pacific railroads during the remaining months of 1861.
It was then stationed at Lexington for a month, when it was ordered to Fort Leavenworth and was granted 10 days' furlough. It rendezvoused again at Lawrence, whence it moved to Fort Scott,
to join the army under Gen. Curtis. At the time of the contemplated expedition to Texas by way of New Mexico, it was ordered
to Fort Riley, but on the abandonment of the expedition, it was in
May ordered to Pittsburg landing, Tenn. Before reaching tliat point
it was ordered to Columbus, Ky., and was employed during the summer in guarding the Mobile & Ohio railroad, with headquarters at
Trenton, Tenn., whence it moved to Jackson in the latter part of
September. On Oct. 3 it was assigned to Gen. McPherson's brigade, joined Rosecrans just at the close of the battle of Corinth,
Miss., pursued the enemy to Ripley, and was engaged at Chewalla
and Tuscumbia. Returning to Corinth and thence to Grand Junction, it participated in Grant's movement towards Jackson, Miss.,
forming a part of Col. Deitzler's brigade. It was engaged at Lumpkin's mill and Tallahatchie; marched with Grant's army to Memphis in December; and early in the following year embarked on
transports for Young's point, opposite Vicksburg. From this time
on until the fall of Vicksburg it shared in all the operations of the
siege. From Feb. i, 1863, the regiment served as mounted infantry
by order of Gen. Grant and was constantly employed in outpost and
picket duty, frequently skirmishing with the enemy. On the fall
of Vicksburg it moved to Natchez, where it crossed the Mississippi
river, engaged and routed 2,000 of the enemy on the Louisiana side,
and then occupied the post of Vandalia, La. During the ensuing
winter it was employed in picket and outpost duty at Black River
bridge in the rear of Vicksburg, and thoroughly scouted the country toward Jackson, Benton, Yazoo City, etc. During this time
the regiment was commanded by Lieut. -Col. Spicer, Col. Roberts
being in command of a brigade. It formed part of Gen. McArthur's expedition up the Yazoo river, striking the Central Mississippi railroad at Benton, and engaging the enemy at Tallahatchie. On
June I, 1864, its term of service having expired, the regiment, except recruits and two companies of veterans embarked on the transport Arthur for Fort Leavenworth, Kan., to be mustered out. In
addition to about 300 men of the ist, there were on the boat an
equal number of men, women and children as passengers. The
Arthur was fired upon near Columbia, Ark., by an 8-gun battery
of the enemy, several shots striking the boat, and three shells exploding within her, but fortunately the hull and machinery of the
boat escaped serious damage. One killed and another mortally
wounded of the ist were the total casualties. The regiment was
mustered out at Leavenworth June 17, 1864. The veteran companies continued in service in Mississippi, Louisiana. Arkansas and
Texas until the end of the war, when they were honorably discharged at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 30, 1865. The following is a
list of the engagements in which the ist was in whole or in part
engaged: Dug springs, Wilson's creek, Brownsville, Trenton, Chewalla, Tuscumbia, Lumpkin's mill, Tallahatchie, Old river. Hood's
lane. Black bayou. Lake Providence, Caledonia, Pinhook, Bayou
Tensas, Holly Brook, Baxter's bayou. Cross bayou, Alexandria,
Big Black river, Columbia, Atchafalaya river, Salem, Richmond.
La., Bayou Macon, Yazoo City and Benton.
The Union Regiments of Kansas states that the regiment lost 131
killed and mortally wounded, of which 11 were officers; 94 men
died of disease and other causes. Dyer states that the regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 120 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 Officers and 122 Enlisted men by disease. Total 252.
The Union Regiments of Kansas shows its original strength was 986; aggregate strength during service, 1,192. The National Archives index contains 2191 names.
Cols., George W. Deitzler, William Y. Roberts; Lieut. -Cols., Oscar E. Learnard, Otto M. Tennison. Newell
W. Spicer; Majs., John A. Halderman, William Y. Roberts, James Ketner.
Organized at Camp Lincoln, Fort Leavenworth, May 20 to June 3, 1861. Moved to Wyandotte, thence to Kansas City and Clinton, Mo., to join General Lyon, June 7-July 13, 1861. Attached to Dietzler's Brigade, Lyon's Army of the West. Advance on Springfield July. Action at Dug Springs August 2. At Springfield, Mo., till August 7. Battle of Wilson's Creek August 10. March to Rolia, Mo., August 11-22, thence to St. Louis, Mo., and duty on the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad till October. Attached to Dept. of Missouri to February, 1862. Dept. of Kansas to June, 1862. District of Columbus, Ky., Dept. Tennessee, to September, 1862. 1st Brigade, 6th Division, District of Corinth, Dept. Tennessee, to November, 1862. 1st Brigade, 6th Division, Left Wing 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 1st Brigade, 6th Division, 16th Army Corps, Army Tennessee, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 6th Division, 17th Army Corps, to July, 1863. District of Vicksburg, Miss., to September, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 17th Army Corps, to August, 1864. Unattached, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps, Dept. of the Gulf, to December, 1864. District of Eastern Arkansas, 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Arkansas, to January, 1865. Dept. Headquarters, Dept. of Arkansas, to August, 1865.
Duty at Tipton, Mo., October, 1861, to January, 1862. Expedition to Milford, Mo., December 15-19, 1861. Shawnee Mound, Milford, December 18. At Lexington till February, 1862. Moved to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. New Mexico Expedition April and May. Ordered to Columbus, Ky., and duty guarding Mobile & Ohio Railroad. Headquarters at Trenton, Tenn., till September. Moved to Jackson, Tenn., and duty there till November. Brownsburg September 4. Trenton September 17. March to relief of Corinth, Miss., October 3-5. Pursuit to Ripley October 5-12. Actions at Chewalla and Big Hill October 5. Moved to Grand Junction November 2. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign. Operations on the Mississippi Central Railroad to the Yocknapatalfa River November, 1862, to January. 1863. Moved to Moscow, thence to Memphis, Tenn., and to Young's Point, La., January 17, 1863. Regiment mounted February 1, 1863. Moved to Lake Providence February 8, and provost duty there till July. Actions at Old River, Hood's Lane, Black Bayou and near Lake Providence February 10. Pin Hook and Caledonia, Bayou Macon, May 10. Expedition to Mechanicsburg May 26-June 4. Repulse of attack on Providence June 9. Baxter's Bayou and Lake Providence June 10. Bayou Macon June 10. Richmond June 16. Lake Providence June 29. Moved to Natchez July 12-13, and duty there till October. Expedition to Harrisonburg, La., September 1-8. Cross Bayou September 14. Moved to Vicksburg, Miss., October, and duty at Big Black and near Haynes' Bluff till June, 1864. Big Black River October 8, 1863. Scout from Bovina Station to Baldwyn's Ferry November 1. Scout to Baldwyn's Ferry January 14, 1864. Expedition up Yazoo River April 19-23. McArthur's Expedition to Yazoo City May 4-21. Benton May 7-9. Luce's Plantation May 13. Non-Veterans ordered to Fort Leavenworth, Kans., June 1, 1864. Attacked near Columbus, Ky., June 2. Mustered out June 19, 1864. Veterans on duty in District of Vicksburg, Miss., till August, 1864. Ordered to Morganza, La., July 29. Operations in vicinity of Morganza September 16-25. Near Alexandria September 20. Atchatalaya October 5. Ordered to White River, Ark., October 7, thence to Little Rock, Ark., December 7. Duty there as Headquarters Guard and escort, Dept. of Arkansas, till August, 1865. Mustered out August 30, 1865.
The composite roster of this regiment contains 2191 names.