This regiment was originally organized as the 18th infantry (q. v.), but was changed to heavy artillery after five months' service, and by general order No. 62, from the adjutant-general's office of Maine, series of 1862, was designated as the 1st regiment, heavy artillery, Maine volunteers. Two additional companies were organized — one in Jan., 1864, the other in Feb., 1864. The original members were mustered out on June 6, 1865, but the organization, composed of veterans and recruits of this regiment and accessions from the 17th and 19th Me. infantry, remained in service and was mustered out at Washington, D. C, Sept. 11, 1865. The men returned to Bangor, Me., on the 17th and were paid and discharged on the 20th. The several companies were stationed in the defenses of Washington until 1864. The 3d battery of mounted artillery was temporarily attached to this regiment, and served as Co. M, from March 28, 1863, to Feb. 23, 1864. The maximum number of men required for the regiment (1,800), was secured in Feb., 1864, when two new majors were added and four lieutenants in each company instead of two. On May 15 1864, the regiment as thus organized joined the Army of the Potomac at Belle Plain landing and came under fire for the first time on the 19th, when it took a prominent part in repulsing a heavy attack of the enemy on the supply trains near the Fredericksburg pike. It suffered severely in the action, losing 476 men in killed, wounded and missing. It subsequently participated in the battles of Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom, Boydton road, Weldon railroad, Hatcher's run, and in all the final movements resulting in the evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg and the surrender of Gen. Lee. On May 24, 1864, the regiment was assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps. In the heroic assaults on the enemy's works at Petersburg, between June 15-30, the regiment lost 30 killed, 519 wounded and 31 missing, 6 of the killed being commissioned officers. Col. Chaplin was mortally wounded by a sharpshooter on Aug. 18 at Deep Bottom, and in the action on the Boydton plank road, Oct. 27, the regiment lost 3 commissioned officers and 29 men. In an engagement of a little more than an hour at Hatcher's run, March 25, 1865, it lost 1 officer and 3 men killed, and 23 wounded and captured. The regiment was at Bailey's cross-roads April 16, and later participated in the grand review at Washington.
Of all the Regiments in the Union army this Regiment sustained the greatest loss in battle. 23 Officers and 400 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 260 died of disease, etc. Total 683.
Cols., Daniel Chaplin, Russell B. Shepherd; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas H. Talbot, Russell B. Shepherd, Zemro A. Smith; Majs., Charles Hamlin, Russell B. Shepherd, George W. Sabine, Christopher V. Crossman, Zemro A. Smith, Charles W. Nute, Harrison G. Smith.
Organized at Bangor as 18th Infantry and mustered in August 21, 1862. Left State for Washington, D.C., August 24. Designation changed to 1st Heavy Artillery January 6, 1863. Company "L" organized January, 1864, and Company "M" February, 1864. Attached to Defences of Washington August, 1862, to February, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Haskins' Division, 22nd Army Corps. Defences North of the Potomac to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May 24, 1864. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to July, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1865. 3rd Brigade, Hardin's Division, 22nd Corps, to September, 1865.
Duty in the Defences of Washington, building and garrisoning Batteries and Forts. Eight Companies at Fort Alexandria, Company "E" at Batteries Vermont and Mattox, Company "K" at Batteries Cameron and Parrott, August 26, 1862, to May 15, 1864. Moved to Belle Plains, Va., May 15, 1864, as a part of Tyler's Heavy Artillery Division. Rapidan Campaign May 18 to June 15. Harris' Farm, Fredericksburg Road, May 19. (82 killed, 394 wounded, 5 missing; total 481.) On line of North Anna May 20-23. North Anna May 23-26. On line ef the Pamunkey River May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 23-31. Cold Harbor June 1-5. Barker's Mills June 5-12. Before Petersburg June 16-19. Hare's House, Assault on Petersburg, June 18. (Sustained greatest loss of any one Regiment in any one action of the war. 635 killed and wounded out of 900 engaged.) Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Weldon Railroad June 22-23, 1864. Picket duty at Deserted House until July 23. Demonstration on north side of James River July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Duty at Hare's House until August 12. Demonstration on north side of James River August 13-20. Strawberry Plains August 14-18. Near Fort Sedgwick until September 30. Poplar Springs Church September 30-October 2. Yellow House October 1. Squirrel Level Road October 2. At Fort Sedgwick October 6-24. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Warren's Hicksford Raid December 7-12. Hatcher's Run February 5-7, 1865. Armstrong House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. South Side Railroad March 29. Boydton Road and White Oak Ridge March 29-31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Jettersvtlle April 5. Amelia Springs and Sailor's Creek April 6. Farmville April 7. Appomattox C. H. April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Moved to Washington, D.C., May 9-16. Grand Review May 23. Garrison Forts in the Defenses of Washington from Fort Washington to Fort Mahone June 27 to September 11. Mustered out September 11 and ordered to Bangor, Me. Discharged September 20, 1865.