This regiment was organized at Detroit in April, 1861, and was mustered in on May 25, being the first three years regiment in the state. It left for the front on June 5 and reported at Washington. It was engaged at Blackburn's ford, and covered the retreat from Bull Run three days later. It remained near Alexandria during the fall and winter, with Col. O. M. Poe in command, Richardson being made brigadier-general. It was assigned to Berry's brigade, Kearny's division, Heintzelman's corps, for the Peninsular campaign, was in the siege of Yorktown, and was engaged at Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Charles City cross-roads and Malvern hill, its losses being 137 in killed, wounded and missing. It was in the hottest of the fight at Williamsburg, forcing back twice its numbers at the point of the bayonet. "By coolness, precision and energy, recapturing our lost position and artillery, * * * and have won a name in history that the most ambitious might be proud of," read the official report. At Fair Oaks, 500 of the regiment charged ten times their number, "stopping them in mid-career." It was at Harrison's landing until Aug. 15, was under furious fire at the second Bull Run, repulsing several cavalry charges, and was also in the severe engagement at Chantilly. It was in numerous expeditions and reconnaissances until the last of November and was then transferred to the 1st brigade, Burns' division, 9th corps, being held in reserve at Fredericksburg. It moved to Newport News, Va., in Feb., 1863, and to Bardstown, Ky., in March. In June it joined Grant's army in Mississippi and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. It was in the several engagements at Jackson in July, including a skirmish, in which it drove the enemy from his rifle-pits and through his reserve. It moved to Milldale, then to Nicholasville, Ky. and on Aug. 30, to Crab Orchard. It then moved to eastern Tennessee and was in the engagements at Blue Springs, Loudon, Lenoir's station and Campbell's station, and assisted in the defense of Knoxville. The regiment performed heroic service at Fort Sanders and at Thurley's ford, after which it camped at Blain's cross-roads until the middle of Jan., 1864. There 198 of the regiment reenlisted and after camping at Erie Station until Feb. 4, the veterans were sent home on furlough. Col. Poe, their old commander, wrote of them: "Proud am I that I was ever associated with such heroes. * * * There is something sublimely grand in the steady, quiet courage of those men of our 'Second ;' they never yet have failed in time of need, and never will." The regiment rejoined its corps of the Army of the Potomac May 5, and participated in the battle of the Wilderness. At Spottsylvania Court House it recaptured some guns lost by a New York battery and drove back a brigade. It was engaged at Ox ford, North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church and Cold Harbor and in the first assaults on Petersburg in June it lost 22 killed, 143 wounded and 6 missing. In the attack following the springing of the mine the regiment lost 6 killed, 14 wounded and 37 missing. It was engaged at the Weldon railroad and Poplar Spring Church, and was then in camp near Peebles' house until Oct. 27, when it fought at Hatcher's run and was then in the trenches before Petersburg during the winter. It participated in the defense of Fort Stedman in March, 1865, sustaining heavy loss, and aided in the capture of Petersburg in April. It was mustered out at Washington July 28, 1865. Its original strength was 1,013: gain by recruits, 1,138; total 2,151. Loss by death, 321.
Cols., Israel B. Richardson, Orlando M. Poe, William Humphrey; Lieut. -Cols., Henry L. Chipman, Adolphus W. Williams, Louis Dillman, Edwin J. March, Charles B. Haydon, Frederick Schneider; Majs., A. W. Williams, Cornelius Byington, John C. Boughton.
Attached to Richardson's Brigade. Tyler's Division, McDowell's Army of Northeastern Virginia, to August, 1861. Richardson's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Richardson's Brigade, Heintzelman's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to August, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, to November, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1863, and Army of the Ohio to June, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to August, 1863, and Army of the Ohio to January, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Ohio, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to July, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 9th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps. to July, 1865.
Duty in the Defences of Washington, D. C., June 10 to July 16, 1861. Advance on Manassas, Va., July 16-21. Occupation of Fairfax Court House July 17. Action at Blackburn's Ford July 18. Battle of Bull Run July 21. Duty in the Defences of Washington, D. C., till March, 1862. Reconnoissance to Occoquan October 21-24, 1861. Reconnoissance to Pohick Church, Va., November 12-14. Moved to the Virginia Peninsula March 17, 1862. Siege of Yorktown, Va., April 5-May 4. Battle of Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Reconnoissance beyond Seven Pines June 1-2. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove June 25. Savage Station June 29. Glendale and Charles City Cross Roads June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. Duty at Harrison's Landing till August 15. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centreville, Va., August 15-28. Battles of Groveton August 29. Bull Run August 30. Chantilly September 1. Duty in the Defences of Washington, D. C., September 3 to October 11. March up the Potomac to Leesburg, thence to Falmouth, Va., October 11-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Moved to Newport News, Va., February 10, and duty there till March 19. Movement to Kentucky March 19-23. Duty at Camp Dick Robinson, Ky., April 9-30, and at Columbia till June. Moved to Vicksburg, Miss., June 7-14. Siege of Vicksburg June 14-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Destruction of Mississippi Central Railroad at Madison Station July 18-22. Duty at Milldale till August 4. Moved to Covington, Ky., August 4-12, and to Crab Orchard, Ky., August 17-18. Burnside's Campaign in East Tennessee August 18-October 17. March to Knoxville, Tenn., over the Cumberland Mountains September 10-26. Duty near Knoxville September 27-October 3. Action at Blue Springs October 10. Knoxville Campaign November 4-December 23. Action at Campbell's Station November 16. Siege of Knoxville November 17-December 5. Assault on Confederate works November 23. Repulse of Longstreet's assault on Fort Saunders November 29. Granger's Mills December 14. Operation in East Tennessee till February, 1864. Veterans on furlough February 4 to April 4, when rejoined Corps at Annapolis, Md. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James River May 4-June 15. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Ny River May 10. Spottsylvania Court House May 32-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Ox Ford May 23-24. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30, 1864. Weldon Railroad August 18-21. Ream's Station August 25. Poplar Springs Church, Pegram's Farm, September 29-October 2. Reconnoissance on Vaughan and Squirrel Level Roads October 8. Boydton Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Fort Stedman, Petersburg, March 25, 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Assault on and fall of Petersburg April 2. Occupation of Petersburg April 3. Pursuit of Lee April 3-9. Moved to Washington, D. C., April 22-28, and duty there till July. Grand Review May 23. Mustered out July 29, and discharged at Detroit, Mich., August 1, 1865.