The Civil War in Mississippi
Aggregate original enrollment, 1,034 officers and men. Enlisted for one year, re-enlisted in 1862 for three years or the war.
These were among the fifty companies ordered by the Governor 21 May, 1861, to proceed at once to Corinth and go into camp of instruction under the command of Major-General Charles Clark. At that time the State was also organizing eight regiments in the Army of Mississippi, the Ninth and Tenth had been organized at Pensacola and the Second, Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth had gone to Virginia. The companies were mustered into the Confederate States service for twelve months at Corinth May 27-30, and field officers were elected June 5.
About the first of August the regiment was moved to Union City, Tenn., with the Fifteenth, also organized at Corinth about the same time. August 13 the two regiments were ordered to Russellville for duty in East Tennessee with General Zollicoffer. On the 28th Colonel Baldwin was ordered by Zollicoffer to advance to Fish Springs. On reaching Kentucky the Fourteenth passed under the command of Gen. S. B. Buckner and so escaped the disaster at Fishing Creek to become the victims of misfortune at Fort Donelson. September 28 they were on the march to Greeneville, and October 1, by order of General Buckner, Colonel Baldwin was put in command of a brigade including his own regiment, Palmer's Regiment and Helm's Battalion, E. J. Vasser his Adjutant-General. General Buckner, at Bowling Green, ordered the regiment to garrison Baker's Hill, November 2. The Fourteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-sixth Mississippi and Twenty-sixth Tennessee formed a brigade under Colonel Baldwin, in General Buckner's command.
The Fourteenth, under Major Doss, was sent to Fort Donelson some days before Baldwin was ordered there, from Cumberland City, with the remainder of his brigade, and they were not reunited during the battle. In his report Baldwin gave honorable mention to his Adjutant-General, Lieut. S. D. Harris and Aides-de-Camp Thomas A. Burke and T. F. Carrington (wounded), all of the Fourteenth. Of the battle of Fort Donelson, February 15, 1862, Major Doss reported that while the regiment was moving into position Capt. J. L. Crigler, Company G, was severely wounded by a shell. The regiment was ordered to attack a battery in its front, supported by several regiments of Grant's army, which it did gallantly, fighting for an hour until ordered to retire. Capt. F. M. Rogers, Company E, was killed in this engagement. Later in the day the regiment was engaged with a Federal force that had occupied a part of the Confederate intrenchments. The casualties were 17 killed, 85 wounded and 10 missing. Upon the surrender of the fort, which followed this fight, the regiment, about 650 in number, became prisoners of war. In the assignment of exchanged prisoners October 16, 1861, by General Van Dorn, the Fourteenth was ordered to report to Maj.-Gen. Lovell.
Brig.-Gen. Lloyd Tilghman took command of the First Division of the First Army Corps (Lovell’s) of Van Dorn's Army of West Tennessee, at Holly Springs, October 17, 1862, and organized three brigades, the first under the command of Colonel Baldwin, including the Fourteenth Mississippi, Col. A. E. Reynolds' consolidated command, and Col. H. B. Lyons' (Kentucky) consolidated command; the second brigade under Colonel Heiman; the third brigade under Col. D. R. Russell, including his consolidated command and Waul's Texans.
Tilghman appointed Captain Culbertson Chief of Artillery and Acting Inspecting General; Captain Powhatan Ellis, Chief of Staff; Lieut. George Moorman, Aide-de-Camp; Dr. A. H. Voorhies, Chief Surgeon (in 1864 Acting Medical Director Army of the Mississippi).
Tilghman's Division in November was on the Tallahatchie River at the mouth of Tippah. General Grant was advancing from Memphis on his first campaign against Vicksburg, along the Central Railroad.
Tilghman engaged the advance guard of Grant's army at Coffeeville, December 5, 1862, the Fourteenth Regiment being under command of Major W. L. Doss. This was after the retreat from the Tallahatchie, and Hatch's, Lee's and Dickey's cavalry brigades were in pursuit of the Confederate columns. The fight was a brilliant one, and Dickey, in command of the Federal division, admitted considerable confusion in his command and a retreat of one and one-half miles, as well as a loss of 10 killed, 63 wounded and 41 captured. It was in the fight with the Fourteenth Mississippi that Lieutenant-Colonel McCullough, Fourth Illinois, was killed. He fell within twenty paces of Doss' line. The Fourteenth captured 1 7 prisoners, with horses, arms and accouterments, Tilghman reported. Tilghman's entire loss was 7 killed, 43 wounded. Three of the wounded were in the Fourteenth.
In December the name of the army was changed to Army of the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, first corps under Major-General Van Dorn, second corps under Major-General Price. Hence Lovell was relieved of command.
Brigadier-General Baldwin's Brigade, December 10th, included the Fourteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-sixth and Twenty-third (consolidated) Mississippi, Eighth Kentucky, Fiftieth Alabama and McLendon's battery. These were the only Mississippi commands under Van Dorn at that time. Maj.-Gen. W. W. Loring was assigned to temporary command of the corps during Van Dorn's absence in December, 1862, and this assignment became permanent, his command being known as a division of the army under General Pemberton. Tilghman took command of the brigade January 21 1863, and General Baldwin was transferred to Maj .-Gen. M. L. Smith's Division at Vicksburg, where he was given command of another brigade, including the Fourth and Forty-sixth Mississippi, which had been under Gen. S. D. Lee. He served with distinction through the siege of Vicksburg, took his brigade to Dalton, Ga., in the fall of 1863, and being ordered back to Mobile was killed there by being thrown from his horse on the evening of February 19, 1864. Maj.Gen. D. H. Maury, in announcing his death, said: "General Baldwin was one of the most exemplary men in all the relations of life and one of the most accomplished soldiers in our army. His loss is an irreparable misfortune, for we have relied upon his experience, his ability, his courage and fortitude in the trying operations now impending."
Of the fourteen listed in Tilghman's Brigade January 31 it was reported March 27, 1863, that three companies had gone to help drive the enemy from Ponchatoula, another was at Meridian as guard, and the remainder at Jackson, Miss., in Gen. John Adams' command. April 15, assigned to Tilghman's Brigade reorganized; at Jackson, April 17, except detail on the Big Black River. April 27 Colonel Abert ordered to return from Canton to Jackson, time of Grierson's raid. April 30, regiment, 550 present and absent, with Twentieth, formed main part of Gen. John Adams' command at Jackson. May 3, when troops were being sent toward the river, Adams had remaining only the Fourteenth, about 350 men, and Steede's cavalry (about 140). Reinforcements soon arrived from the East and South and an attempt was made to check the advance of Grant's army from Port Gibson. A battalion of the Fourteenth, under Major Doss, was attached to Gist's half brigade, commanded by Col. P. H. Colquitt, of Georgia, in the engagement near Jackson, May 14, 1863, encountering McPherson's Corps on the Clinton road, Colquitt being supported by Walker's Brigade. The fire of Colquitt's skirmishers and Hoskins' Mississippi battery induced the Federal columns to move very cautiously. The Confederate forces both on this and the Mississippi Springs road, all under command of Gen. John Gregg, fell back through Jackson and moved north on the Canton road. Colonel Holmes, commanding McPherson's Second Brigade (Missouri, Ohio and Iowa Regiments) reported that they found Colquitt in a commanding position, his center and artillery at Wright's house. A heavy rain was falling. Holmes put his Missouri battery into action and deployed his three regiments, his line being supported at both flanks by two other brigades, and charged bayonets, a Wisconsin battery being brought up to open on the Confederates as they fell back toward Jackson. Holmes reported his loss as 215 killed and wounded, out of 1,000 actually engaged. The loss of Gist's command was 81 killed and wounded and 118 captured. The share of Doss' Battalion in this was 2 killed, 3 wounded.. Part of the Fourteenth was mounted at the time of Grierson's raid and afterward served as cavalry during the advance of Grant to Jackson and along the Big Black River, Gen. John Adams' headquarters being established at Mechanicsburg during the siege of Vicksburg.
The regiment participated in Johnston's movements for the relief of Vicksburg in June, fell back to Jackson when Vicksburg was surrendered, and served on the Jackson line of works, besieged by Sherman July 9-16, then retreating to Morton. In the return of July 30, Lieutenant-Colonel Doss commanded the regiment, in John Adams' Brigade, Loring's Division.
Loring's Division was at Canton when Sherman began his march from Vicksburg to Meridian in February, 1864, moved to Morton about the time Sherman arrived at Jackson, and fell back to Demopolis, Ala., then being under the orders of General Polk, commanding the Army of the Mississippi. The return of March, 1864, shows Colonel Abert commanding; of April 30, Lieutenant-Colonel Lawrence.
Gen. John Adams' Brigade, including the Sixth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-third and Forty-third Mississippi Regiments, served through the Atlanta campaign in the division commanded by General Loring, until he was wounded near Atlanta, July 28, then succeeded by General Featherston, under the command of Lieutenant-General Polk, until Polk was killed at Pine Mountain, after which the Army of the Mississippi was known as A. P. Stewart's Corps, Army of Tennessee. The brigade arrived at Resaca May 11, 1864, and served in the intrenched lines there and on the Dalton and Kenesaw Mountain lines, participated in battle of July 28 near Atlanta, and served in the trenches about that city until the evacuation, September 1. The returns show Lieut.-Col. Washington L. Doss and Maj. Robert L. Lawrence in command of the regiment during the campaign. General Loring mentioned Capt. E. O. Sykes, of this regiment, on his staff, as distinguished in the battle of Peachtree Creek, also Capt. R. W. Millsaps, Ninth Arkansas. Captain Tabb was killed by a cannon shot while on picket duty east of Atlanta in August.
In the October, 1864, campaign on the Chattanooga and Atlanta Railroad, Loring's Division, including Adams' Brigade, captured the garrison at Acworth October 4, marched as far north as Dalton, thence through the mountains to Gadsden, made a demonstration against Decatur and moved to Tuscumbia.
Crossing the Tennessee River November 20, they marched with Stewart's Corps to Columbia, and on November 29 joined in the flank movement to Spring Hill. Following closely after the Federal forces to Franklin, they joined in the assault of November 30, in which the brigade casualties were 44 killed, 271 wounded, 22 missing. General Adams, leading the brigade against the second line of works, was shot down on the parapet, across which his men found his horse lying after the Union troops had retreated in the night. Col. Robert Lowry took command of the brigade, which after this battle had 1,769 present, 1,047 effective. A letter from the army said: "In the Fourteenth Mississippi Major Crumpton was killed, Captain Mortimer and Lieutenant Estes wounded." Colonel Doss was in command of the regiment. The position of Stewart's Corps in front of Nashville was carried by General Thomas December 15, but Loring's Division was distinguished for gallantry in forming a second line to check the Federal victory. Next day they held their new position until the line was broken on their left. In the last days of December they crossed the Tennessee River and early in January, 1865, the corps went into camp near Tupelo.
About the first of February, 1861, the remnant of Loring's Division began the movement to reinforce General Johnston in the Carolinas. They were ordered forward from Augusta, Ga., to Newberry, S. C., February 25. In the Carolina campaign under General Johnston against General Sherman, they participated in the battle of Kinston, March 10, and the battle of Bentonville March 19-21, on the 19th making a gallant and successful charge. Organization of army of Gen. J. E. Johnston, near Smithfield, N. C., March 31, 1865, shows Major-General Walthall in command of Stewart's Corps, Adams' Brigade commanded by Col. Richard Harrison, the Fourteenth Regiment by Lieut.-Co1. Robert J. Lawrence. Under the organization of April 9 the brigade, also an Alabama and a Louisiana Regiment, constituted the command of Brig.-Gen. Robert Lowry, the Fourteenth and Forty-third and part of the Sixth Mississippi being consolidated as the Fourteenth, Co1. Robert J. Lawrence commanding, Lieutenant-Colonel William P. Hendon, Major Pat Henry. Stewart's entire corps March 17 had a strength of 890 effective. Hostilities were suspended April 18, the army was surrendered April 26, 1865, near Durham Station and paroled at Greensboro.
Adams, General John
Doss, Lieut. Col. Washington L.
Company A -- Shubuta Rifles (raised in Clarke County, MS)
Company B -- Enterprise Guards (raised in Clarke County, MS)
Company C -- Oktibbeha Rescuers (raised in Oktibbeha County, MS)
Company D -- Quitman Invincibles (raised in Clarke County, MS)
Company E -- Monroe Guards (raised in Monroe County, MS)
Company F -- Beauregard Rifles (raised in Winston County, MS)
Company G -- Agency Rifles (raised in Oktibbeha County, MS)
Company H -- Meridian Invincibles (raised in Lauderdale County, MS)
Company I -- Monroe Volunteers (raised in Monroe County, MS)
Company K -- Columbus Riflemen, aka Columbus Rifles (raised in Lowndes County, MS)
COMPANIES COMPRISING THE 14TH MS CONSOLIDATED INFANTRY:
Company A -- Capt. Harper’s Company
Company B -- Capt. Evans’ Company
Company C -- Capt. Smith’s Company
Company D -- Capt. Everett’s Company
Company E -- Capt. Trotter’s Company
Company F -- Capt. Neilson’s Company
Company G -- Capt. Blackwell’s Company
Company H -- Capt. McCrary’s Company
Company I -- Capt. Williams’ Company
Company K -- Capt. Gilbert’s Company
Here's what's available.
|Hooker, Col. Charles E.|
- Confederate Military History - Mississippi Volume - 288 pgs.
|Rigdon, John C.|
Historical Sketch and Roster of the 14th Infantry Regiment
|Rigdon, John C.|
The Civil War in Mississippi
|Rigdon, John C.|
Mississippi Civil War Soldiers Index
|The Southern Historical Society Papers|