The North Carolina 3rd Artillery Regiment AKA the 40th Regiment Volunteers was organized at Bald Head, Smith's Island, North Carolina, in November, 1863, from heavy artillery companies formed in 1861 and 1862. Its men were from the counties of Lenoir, Beaufort, Pamlico, Richmond, Robeson, Wayne, Wilson, Edgecombe, Greene, New Hanover, Bladen, Anson, and Chatham.
The 3rd Artillery was assigned to guard the key Fort Fisher. Until the last few months of the Civil War, Fort Fisher kept North Carolina's port of Wilmington open to blockade-runners supplying necessary goods to Confederate armies inland. By 1865, the supply line through Wilmington was the last remaining supply route open to Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
When Fort Fisher fell its defeat helped to seal the fate of the Confederacy. The Confederate army evacuated their remaining forts in the Cape Fear area, and within weeks Union forces overran Wilmington. Once Wilmington fell, the supply line of the Confederacy was severed. Officers:
John J. Hedrick
William A. Holland Assignments:
Attached to the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, detachments served at Fort Holmes, Fort Caswell, Fort Campbell, Fort Anderson, and Fort Fisher.
In 1865 the unit was converted to infantry and assigned to Hagood's Brigade. Battles:
The Carolina’s Campaign Rosters:
The roster of this unit contains the names of 2008 men.
Cos. A to K, some heavy and some light artillery.
- Co. A served temporarily as 1st Co. K, 32nd Regt., N.C. Infantry in 1861.
Co. B, first M/in 31st Regt. N.C. Infantry, for 12 mos., but reenlisted for war and assigned to 3rd Regt.
Artillery Co. E appears to have been assigned in 1861 as Col. D, 36th Regt. N.C.T., but did not serve.
(1st) Co. G was disbanded by S.O. 209, Army of Northern Va., Oct 4, 1862, and 55 men transferred to Co. A, 1st Regt. N.C. Arty and the remainder to Co. D, 1st Regt. N.C. Artillery
(2nd) Co. G became Co. E, 13th Batallion N.C. Light Artillery, by S.O. 66, AGO, N.C., Nov 4, 1863.
(3rd) Co. G was formerly Capt. Herring's Co. I, 2nd Regt. N.C. Artillery Transferred to this Regt. by S.O. 66.
(old) Co. H was transferred to the 13th Batallion N.C. Artillery as Co. F by S.O. 66.
(new) Co. H was formerly (old) Co. A, 2nd Regt. N.C. Inf. About Sept. 1862, became an independent co. and was assigned to this Regt. about Nov, 1863.
(old) Co. K became Co. C, 61st Regt. N.C. Infantry about Nov, 1862.