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Confederate Military History
Causes of the War

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CHAPTER I. The Settlement of 1850--Previous Sectional Questions--Origin of the Terms North and South--Extent of "Old South"--Sectional Rivalries-- Slaveholding Nearly Universal--Objected to by the South and Insisted on by the Slave Traders--"Profit and Loss" and not Conscience-- Causes which Necessitate the Confederate States 249

CHAPTER II. First Organized Attack--Garrison the Original and Able Representative--Politicians Embrace Sectionalism --National Rebuke and Fight Against the Greatness of the Union by the Sectionalists--Secession Threatened--Mexican War and its Results--Sudden and Fierce Attacks on Southern Policy in 1849-50--The South's Pacific Sentiment-- Union Imperiled by Men of Sectional Views--Clay and Webster, Douglas and Davis Work Together for a National Settlement--The Compromise of 1850 263

CHAPTER III. Political Alignment in 1852-- Democrat, Whig and Freesoiler--The Settlement of 1850 Ratified--Pierce President--Nullification Measures in Northern States-- Renewal of Agitation by Freesoilers---Shadows Showing a Coming Event-- Sectional Discord Necessary to the Freesoil Faction-- Kansas Troubles and Emigrant Aid Societies--The Shaping of a Party Strictly Northern--Local Successes 277

CHAPTER IV. Sectional Convention of 1856 -- Aggressive Assault on the Union by the Fremont Party--Its Strength Alarms the South--"All New England Solid"--Southern Vote Given to National Northern Men--Buchanan Elected by Only Nineteen States--The Election Endorsed the Compromise of 1850--Kansas Agitation Renewed by the Sectionalists--Democratic Leaders Divide the Party-- Lincoln and Douglas--The Union Imperiled for Party Success--The Crisis Impending--Disunion Becoming Evident--John Brown's Raid a Result of Methodic Madness--Pulpit, Press and Platform Stir Up Passions--Helper's Impending Crisis Reinforces Uncle Tom's Cabin 291

CHAPTER V. The Agitators of Sectionalism Combine in 1859 --The Constitutional Unionists Divide--The South Unable to Control the Question-- Resolutions of Mr. Davis, 1860-- Platforms, Nominations and Canvass for the Presidency-- National Union Sentiment Overthrown--Mr. Lincoln Elected--The Fixed Sectional Majority of States Attained.. 306

CHAPTER VI. The Effect Produced by the Presidential Contest of 1860--Northern Recoil from the Yawning Bloody Chasm--Commercial Interest-- Southern Alarm--Southern Efforts to Avoid Secession--Rally of the Northern Extrem-ists-- Buchanan's Perplexity--Beginning of Federal Movements to Hold the South by Force--Secession Movements in the South 316

CHAPTER VII. Yet Four Months of Power-- Buchanan's Vacillation-Opinion Against Coercion-- Scott Proposes Force-- Major Anderson Instructed-- Reinforcement of Sumter Considered-United States Congress Takes Up the Crisis--Crittenden, Stephens and Davis in and out of Congress Plead for an Adjustment--Committee of Thirty-three and Committee of Thirteen 325

CHAPTER VIII. Vigorous Work to Strengthen Fort Sumter --Cabinet Officers Resign--Buchanan's Policy Looks Warlike--Seward Calls Secession a Humbug-- Lincoln Instructs Against Compromise--Election in South Carolina and Secession Ordinance Passed-- Commissioners from South Carolina Sent to Washington--Anderson's Strategy in Moving from Fort Moultrie an Act of War--Lincoln in December Advises Scott to Hold the Forts or Retake Them-- Failure of Peace Measures in Congress--The Dark Day. 335

CHAPTER IX. Policy Foreshadowed in December, 1860--Warlike Preparations--Star of the West Hired to Reinforce Sumter--southern Leaders Grow Hopeless of Peace-- Northern Leaders Oppose Compromise--Crittenden, Davis, Toombs and Others Urge Conciliation--Virginia to the Rescue-- Border States Declare Against Coercion--Secession of Several States--Peace Congress--"Peace Hath No Victories". 347

CHAPTER X. Delegates of Seceded States Meet in Montgomery-Adoption by Convention of a Provisional Government --Election of Officers-- Inauguration of Mr. Davis as President-Measures Adopted--Commissioners Sent to Washington and to Foreign Countries--The Constitution of the Confederate States of America 358

CHAPTER XI. President Lincoln's Inauguration-- Military Display--Cabinet--Confederate Commissioners at Washington--Mr, Seward's Double Dealing with Them--The Fort Sumter Reinforcement Question 372

CHAPTER XII. The Fight for Forts--Proceedings Against Fort Sumter--The South Deluded--The Astute Scheme to Reinforce--The Fleet, the Demonstration, the Surrender--Purpose to Put the South in a False Position 381

CHAPTER XIII. Lincoln's Call for 75,000 Volunteers- --Responses of Governors -- Confederate Preparations for Defense--Political Effect in the North--Confederate Congress Summoned to Meet-- Letters of Marque--Blockade--Measures of Confederate Congress 393

CHAPTER XIV. Confederate War Policy--President Davis' Proclamation--Sympathy for Maryland-- Virginia Forces Organized by Lee--Federals Cross the Potomac--Confederate Government Transferred to Richmond--Congress of the Confederate States and the United States---Messages--Perplexing Questions--Foreign Affairs 403

CHAPTER XV. Comparison of Resources--The Advance toward Richmond--Curious Story of the First Manassas Told in the Records--The Discomfiture Turned to Political Advantage-- Confederate Flags in Full View from Washington -- Question of Offensive or Defensive War--Additional Commissions from the Confederacy to Europe--Acts of Confederate Congress--The Trent Affair 417

CHAPTER XVI. Character of the Confederate Government-- Message of the President-- Congressional Debates on War Policy--Use of Cotton, Tobacco, etc.--Foreign Affairs-- Peace Resolutions--Free Trade Defeated 430

CHAPTER XVII. Second Session of Congress-- Message-- Bills Introduced--Discussions of Military Events--Lincoln's First Emancipation Proclamation-- Retaliation--Sequestration-California and Oregon-- Counterfeit Money--Commissions to Washington to Propose Peace--The Loan--Important Bills-- Appropriations 445

CHAPTER XVIII. Emancipation Proclamation--The Necessity of It--Effect--The Southern View---Negro Enrollment in Northern Armies--Meeting of Confederate Congress-- Message--Debates-- Resolutions--Army Movements--The Confederate Situation 461

CHAPTER XIX. Mediation Attempted--Foreign Affairs-- Peace Spirit--Prisoners of War--Amnesty on Conditions-- Reconstruction on a War Basis--Close of 1863 472

CHAPTER XX. Exchanges--Prisons and Prisoners-- Andersonville in the South--Elmira, Johnson's Island and Fort Delaware in the North--Confederate Government Not Responsible for Difficulties of Exchange 484

CHAPTER XXI. Armies East and West--United States Congress-Message of President Lincoln--The Confederate States Congress--Message of President Davis--No Sign of Yielding--A Male Citizens in the South Enrolled--Other Acts of Congress--Politics in the United States--Thirteenth Amendment Proposed--A Peace Movement--War Preparations- Confederate Victories 499

CHAPTER XXII. Political Battle of 1864 in the North- -Peace Currents--Southern Peace Movements--War or Peace Discussed in United States Congress--The Situation in July--Niagara Conference 509

CHAPTER XXIII. Re-Survey, Military and Political-- Radical Convention in May--Republican Convention in June-- Southern View of Northern Politics-- Failure of the Armistice-Peace Propositions Ignored- -National Democratic Convention in August-- Southern Desire for McClellan's Election--The Canvass for Presidency--Lincoln Reelected 522 CHAPTER XXIV. Confederate Congress, November,

1864-- Message--Question of Enrolling Negroes in Southern Service--Measures of the Congress-- Negotiations for Peace Proposed by Congress 538 CHAPTER XXV. Mission of Mr. Blair--Davis and Lincoln Exchange Letters through Blair--Failure of Blair Discussed --The Hampton Roads Conference 543

CHAPTER XXVI. Military Disparities--Wise on the Part of the South to Refuse Unconditional Surrender--Why the Final Fight was Made--Closely Allied Military and Civil Events--Last Message of President Davis to Congress-- Last Acts of Congress- -Patriotic Act of Virginia and Other States--Grant Breaks the Lines at Last--Richmond Evacuated-The President and Cabinet Move to North Carolina and Georgia--Capture of the President--Assassination of President Lincoln--Malicious Prosecution of President Davis--The Dissolution of the Confederate States of America 560


Confederate Military History